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tv   Global 3000  PBS  August 26, 2015 12:30am-1:01am PDT

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>> hello and welcome to "global 3000." at what point does development aid begin to do more harm than good? join us as we tackle this topic and much more. here's a look at what's coming up on today's program. poverty as business -- a critical look at kenya's aid industry. thirsty neighbors -- honduras and el salvador share the same shrinking river. and off the streets and into the kitchen -- a fresh start for homeless children in cambodia.
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international aid is big business. so big, in fact, that some recipient countries are finding that poverty can be as profitable as tourism. in recent years, over $134 billion worldwide have been poured into international development aid. sadly, those who need the money may not actually be getting it. nairobi's kibera slum, the biggest in kenya, is a case in point. there, hundreds of aid agencies compete for a slice of the aid money pie. meanwhile, the slum's inhabitants continue to live in dismal conditions. >> we're in the nairobi slum of kibera with asha, a journalist. she's showing us a typical aid project here. a water kiosk financed by the us development agency usaid. asha says people still have to walk far and pay a lot for water. the tank doesn't solve their problems. >> usaid is very powerful. instead of throwing their money at projects like this, they actually throw their money, or
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their efforts, into government to bring in policies that can bring and water for our people because if you help people, the government's supposed to do that, not usaid or anything like that. >> asha lives in kibera herself. she grew up here and knows kibera and its people. community is besieged by organizations from around the world. they claim to only want to help, but asha say they're really competing for publicity and donations. >> my demand is for them to leave. i am 22 years old so i've been in kibera for 22 years. i've never seen any change. it's still a slum. people don't have running water, the people are living on less than two dollars a day. >> asha shows us the offices of kcoda, a local aid organization. kcoda's goal -- political education for young people. it used to publish a newspaper. asha says she worked there, but the staff wasn't paid.
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the paper folded last year. >> this is just an example of -- organization, owned by a local person. but he or she is using the story of kibera to get money from donors. so, at the end of the day, if i say that ngos should get out of kibera, i'm also saying that these local people are using our name to get funds. >> far from kibera, housed in a modern building are the offices of one of the world's biggest humanitarian aid groups. actionaid finances kcoda's projects. its staff of thirty approves applications, tallies statistics, works more with paper than with the people. for actionaid, kcoda, the tiny ngo from the slum, is just a small part of a large and expensive administration. >> kcoda is a member of ten partners that we are working with around the governance that meet on a quarterly basis. and so when we are meeting we kind of look at the mou that we have signed between ourselves and our partners and say you as
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kcoda are supposed to have delivered a, b and c. >> no one oversees the work of aid groups, a situation henry ochido finds frustrating. all aid organizations in kenya are supposed to register with him. he has a list of more than nine thousand groups. whether they actually do any good is something ochido and his staff of just 21 can't determine. and kenya's government is not really interested in knowing. >> if you compare the aid industries with the other key sectors that generate revenue, that generate foreign exchange for this country like horticulture, for instance, and tourism, you'll find that they're fairly close together. they're comparable. in certain years, i mean it's possible that the aid industry could actually be bringing in more money. >> around a billion euros in aid money flows into kenya year after year. the business of misery is flourishing.
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and the worse the misery, so much the better. kibera is said to be africa's biggest slum and home to a million. but figures from a census conducted in 2009 counter that claim. it concluded that only 194,000 people lived in kibera. >> and even in 1999 it was already packed with buildings and because the land area is not increasing, because the surroundings, the environs of kibera are all developed. there's a golf course just on the other side and as you can see from the map, there's a golf course there. >> but kibera remains a myth. a myth, asha says, that to this day is a money-maker. a myth, that nobody wants to change. >> they're just here -- at the end of the day this is kibera. they feel some sort of sadness that people are living in slums, so if you go around and tell them to give us money, though at the end of the day to give money, some people are here to enrich themselves not to help anyone in this place.
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>> many truly want to do some good. but the fact is, after decades of receiving international aid, kibera is still a slum. and asha says that the only ones who can change anything, are the people themselves, the residents of kibera. >> should there be a radical rethink on international aid? go to our facebook page to join in the discussion. time now to check in with our "young global leader" of the week. her name is pooja warier and she's what you might call a social entrepreneur's entrepreneur. her business exists to help fund other, smaller start-ups aiming to make a difference in their local communities. so, if you live in india and are rich in ideas but strapped for cash, pooja warier might just have the solution.
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>> there are so many problems in this country, right? there is everything from education to hunger, to poverty, to employability -- you name the problem and it is there. the solutions will not come from larger bodies, the solutions will really come from citizens that actually go about experiencing these problems. i think that's what we need. a place where we can actually encourage individuals to take action. my father sort of walked away when i was 12, from my family. i suddenly found my mother on the other side of actually struggling to make resources meet. selling a lot of our household stuff. that really left an impression on me. my name is pooja warier and i
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run an organization called unlimited india. what we do is, we play the role of an incubator, but for start-ups that are very focused on a social mission. we pick up about 40 to 50 start-ups every year. and we give them seed-funding and work with them over a period of three years to take it off the ground. out of the 50 you might find one that will actually scale and impact a lot of lives. but in the remaining 49 who don't make it, you've change the way they look at the world around them. and that i think is very important. there was actually a company called rose academy. he is a polio-afflicted individual.
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discovering computer taught him he has way more connection with the world, than just going to school 7 or 8 hours. he realized to get admissions to this computer class there are a lot of requirements. so he started his own computer academy, called rose computer academy, where literally anyone can get admission to his computer class. it's a for-profit business. it makes money. and if you go into a computer class it has like from seven year old kids to 50 year old grandmas learning computers. i think currently the story of india that's told outside is very clearly either/or. it's either india shining or india dying. what i am passionate about is -- can you really unleash the energy of a country using its entrepreneurs?
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to really address problems that have remained for the last, i don't know how many, decades in the country? in 2050 i think that would be amazing to see. no matter where we are. but if we can actually proudly say that we are here, but we brought all our country along and we haven't left half the country behind. >> there are life-changing opportunities to be had in our next report too, where the beneficiaries are street children. according to unesco figures 100 million children worldwide are without a home. many of them live in cities, where life on the streets is particularly tough, especially for the young and vulnerable. now though, some youngsters in the cambodian capital phnom penh are being given the chance to train as professional cooks providing, of course, they have the discipline to see it through.
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>> a recipe to fight poverty, being tested in this kitchen. from street kid to cook -- it's a dream for which they're giving their all. dara is one of them. his parents died early. he ran away from an orphanage and lived on the streets for four years. >> everything's better now. i have friends, food to eat and i can bathe. i'm fifteen years old now. and it's the first time in my life that i'm allowed to learn something. >> just a few streets away, sokro's day begins. he's also 15. but he no longer has dreams. he lives from the trash on the streets, collecting plastic bottles and aluminum cans. his childhood ended much too early. >> i used to beg, but now i'm too old for that. the police caught me three times and put me in jail. i'm afraid that could happen
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again. they beat you. i don't ever want to sent there again. >> with the little he earns he cares for his grandmother and his six-year-old sister. three people without a roof over their heads. cambodia's capital phnom penh seems to have more poverty than any other city in south east asia. 20,000 children live and work on the streets. sokro's grandmother takes his sister with her when she goes begging. having a small child along can help bring in more. at major intersections, she hopes for pity and small change. behind the old olympic stadium, the women and children hide from the police. the authorities want to keep the streets clean. it's a life on the fringe of society, a life where spittle is the only thing there is to play
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with. the days are long for children who beg or collect garbage. evenings, when traffic clogs the streets, they start their night shift. they've long since lost the thstatdoesn't ca whether orot tse cldren go s school. poverty, violence and sexual abuse determine their lives. to escape all of that, many children sniff ge. it keeps them awake, so they can beg longer and it also stifles their hunger. dara's familiar with that. that was his life not too long ago. often, the little he earned by begging wasn't enough for a meal. glue was much cheaper. >> all of my friends sniffed glue.
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and i did too sometimes. when you breathe it in, you don't care about anything and you feel happy. >> sok nina is now his teacher, providing him the training he needs to become a cook. she works for an organization translates as "a good friend." the recipe reads -- education and training. young people should finally have a real chance. practical training in the morning is followed by theory in the afternoon. for dara and the others it's a completely new experience. being on time, respecting teachers and taking on responsibilities. not all of them manage to see it through. >> at the beginning it's very difficult for the children. they've spent their entire lives on the street.
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order and discipline are something new to tm. here they have a clearly defined daily routine. it takes time before they call get used to it. >> dara's day is over. giving hundreds of youngsters the chance for an education is not something to be taken for granted. the biggest resistance often comes from parents, because a child who begs brings in money. a child in school results in a loss, at least at first. >> when i go home at night i see other children who still live on the street. i wish i could take them all with me but unfortunately that's not possible. >> eating a regular meal has finally become something normal for dara. heot off the drugs and will continue to live in the organization's dormitory until he finishes his training. but sokro's day won't be over for a long time.
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he'll collect trash until three in the morning. only then will he be able to lie down on the side of the road for a few hours sleep. what others take for gnted, is a luxury for sokro. >> the trifinio-fraternidad biosphere serve straddles the boundaries of three ighboring countries in central american. this could be a recipe for disaster, since they all depend on the reserve's natural resources, and those resources are dwindling fast. water in particular is under threat from climate change and intensive farming. and because that affects them all, the neighbors have joined forces to find a common solution. ♪
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>> sebastian santamaria is singing about his homeland, trifinio, nestled in the mountains of central america. it's a region covering 7500 square kilometers in the border regions of guatemala, honduras, and el salvador. nearly 30 years ago the three countries began cooperating in an effort to preserve the area's nature and improve the quality of life of the people living there. together they adopted a treaty known as the "plan trifinio". balmore montoya works for the state-run trifinio commission in his country, el salvador. >> the agreement states that the countries must work together in the trifinio region.
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this piece of land has much to offer. a diversity of species and it's a water catchment area. several rivers have their source here. that makes the area so valuable. >> cabbage is a typical product of the region. but the farmers earn little from their harvests. the infrastructure is poor and transporting the produce to the nearest market is expensive. a big problem in the region is deforestation. because there is so little space at the foot of the mountains, the farming fields stretch up to the peaks. and that's not good for the eco-system.
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>> the forest acts like a sponge. when it rains, it absorbs all the water. and it's this water that fills the wells, the reservoirs, down below. all of nature at the foot of the mountain benefits. that's why it's so important to work to keep our forests intact and to stop the clear-cutting. because that's the only way to collect the water and the only way to supply our communities with sufficient water. >> the farmers who own a small piece of land in trifinio desperately need the water. agustin diaz is one of them. like all the other farmers, he uses the water from a nearby river to water his crops. the salvadoran is a farmer and the pastor in his community.
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his house is just minutes away from the border with honduras. in the past, salvadorans actually fought with their neighbors in honduras over who could take how much water from the river. the sumpul river forms the border between the two countries. >> there were some pretty fierce conflicts between our communities and theirs. because the amount of water kept decreasing and was no longer sufficient to cover everyone's needs. but too much is also wasted. people think they can use unlimited amounts of water. >> environmentalist balmore montoya has been able to convince the farmers that cutting down the forests has to stop. together they've formed a water committee with representatives from both countries.
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they regularly visit the small reservoir that provides water for their families. the project was partly financed by the international climate initiative. for the farmers, water is more important than ever before. >> of course we see that it's not raining nearly enough here. we used to have long rainy periods. they've become shorter. the dry seasons are longer and water reserves are declining. so for us in trifinio, supplying water to our communities is the top priority. >> mud and filth is filtered out of the water before it flows down the mountain. one pipe leads to honduras, the other to el salvador.
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adelmo chacon used to have to walk to the river, which was also contaminated with chemicals. thanks to the project, he now has clean drinking water for the first time - and a water meter to measure his consumption. >> the meter is a good thing for us, because it helps us to learn how to use water properly and stop wasting it. at first we were worried that with the meter we'd end up having to pay more for water. but no, just the opposite. it just tells us how much we use. >> the farmers in trifinio may not have everything they need. but the water being pumped into their homes is a first step to making their lives in the mountains a little easier.
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♪ >> viewers, in recent weeks you've done us proud with your messages and photos of your favourite local snacks. and how do we repay you? with an austrian kasekrainer, that's how! >> welcome to vienna, the capital of austria. in mariahilf, the city's sixth municipal district, there's a market that features gourmet specialties from around the world. but those who prefer something a
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bit heartier go a little further to pick up a typical viennese snack. a special sausage known as kasekrainer. eva is viennese through and through. the sausage stand is practically her second home. >> it's been here for 65 years. it's old vienna in the truest sense of the word. a sausage stand. i came here with my grandfather. >> the locals love kasekrainer mostly because of the melted cheese inside. >> kasekrainer is like so much in vienna. mixed sausage meat, beef, and pork, and people like it, especially in the later hours. it is usually served with hot
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mustard, maybe hot peppers, or maybe a good horse radish. >> before you start your night out, you look around for a good sausage stand. nice and greasy, filled with cheese, then you're ready for the night. when you need a break, you get another sausage. it's the best thing for your stomach. so you can go from stand to stand, bar to bar. it's best with horse radish because that keeps you fit all night. >> and eva won't be turning off the lights at her stand until the sun starts to rise. >> and, yes, that really was a flying sausage. you saw it here. thank you for watching.
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memphis tennessee. it has been written if music were religion, then memphis would be jerusalem, and sun studio its most sacred shrine. and you are here with ryan bingham and the dead horses. "sun studio sessions" and its performers are brought to you in part by the american society of composers, authors and publishers, ascap, home of america's songwriters. elvis presley still making music history more than 50 years after he began. elvis presley's gracelan

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